Genetic populations experienced considerable growth in recent decades through the development of techniques more sophisticated. Among these techniques, we can distinguish molecular and computational tools allowing to investigate a variety of elaborated questions. Indeed, the development of molecular markers combined with advanced softwares allowed the detection of fine scale polymorphism which in turn allow understanding the evolutionary history of populations at the individual scale. In parallel, this individual scale also benefited from the development of geomatic which brought tools able to geolocate individuals / samples. The convergence of these technologies has driven the emergence of a new discipline defined by Manel et al. in 2003 as the ‘landscape genetics’.
Currently, taking into account that ecosystems are experiencing a significant change under the combined pressures of environmental and anthropogenic pressures, my research aims to assess the impact of these changes on the distribution of variability population genetics.
The climate and land use changes evolved since 1950. In Europe, these changes have disrupted ecosystems and their associated services which represent a major financial issue. Thus, monitor the evolution of agro ecosystems and their functional biodiversity becomes crucial and represents currently a very important problematic. The important landscape diversity and the notable agro-pastoral activities, occurring in the Poitou-Charente region, make of this region a privileged zone for study the ecosystem evolution. Thus, my researchs are studying the distribution of the genetic variability of the soil macrofauna, known for its fundamental part in the soil fertilisation and in the decomposition of the nutritive elements. In this way, isopods represent key species for ecosystems and so for associated services (David & Handa 2010, Berg et al. 2010).
Today, in a context where the massive sequencing offers new possibilities for studying of population genetics, it seems crucial to pursue and exploit the convergence of technology both molecularly , analytical and spatial . The essence of such a multidisciplinary approach (ranging from molecules to populations) represents a particularly strong challenge in understanding the adaptive responses of populations and species in a changing environment.
Key words : landscape genetics, Conservation genetics, Microsatellite markers, gene flow, GIS, terrestrial Isopod